Forged Wheels Raw Material Selection
Forged Wheels Raw material selection
The preparation of the forgings before forging includes raw material selection, counting, cutting, heating, calculating deformation forces, selecting equipment, designing molds. Forging before the need to choose a good lubrication methods and lubricants.
Forging materials involved in a wide range, both a variety of grades of steel and high temperature alloys, and aluminum, magnesium, titanium, copper and other non-ferrous metals; both after a processing into different sizes of bars and profiles, Specifications of the ingot; in addition to a large number of domestic materials suitable for China's domestic materials, but also from foreign materials. Forging materials are mostly included in the national standard, there are many development, trial and promotion of new materials. As we all know, the quality of forgings products are often closely related to the quality of raw materials, so for the forging plant workers, must have the necessary knowledge of the material, to be good at the process requirements to choose the most suitable material.
Calculation and cutting is to improve the utilization of forging materials, to achieve one of the important aspects of rough refining. Excessive material not only causes waste, but also exacerbates mold wear and energy consumption. If the material does not leave a little margin, will increase the difficulty of process adjustment, increase scrap rate. In addition, the quality of the end of the material on the quality of the process and forging also have an impact.
The purpose of heating is to reduce the forging deformation force and improve the metal plasticity. But heating also brings a series of problems, such as oxidation, decarbonization, overheating and overgrowth. Accurately control the initial forging and final forging temperature, the product organization and performance have a great impact.
Flame furnace heating has the advantages of low cost, strong applicability, but the heating time is long, easy to produce oxidation and decarburization, labor conditions also need to improve. The induction heating has the advantages of rapid heating and little oxidation, but it is poor adaptability to the product shape and material change.
Forging forming is generated by the external force, therefore, the correct calculation of deformation force, is the choice of equipment, the basis for mold verification. Stress and strain analysis of the interior of the deformable body is also indispensable for optimizing the process and controlling the properties of the forging.
There are four main methods of deformation analysis. Although the main stress method is not very tight, but relatively simple and intuitive, you can calculate the total pressure and forgings and tools on the contact surface stress distribution. The slip line method is strict for the plane strain problem, and the stress distribution is more intuitive for the local deformation of the high parts, but the application range is narrow. The upper limit method can give an overvalued load, and the upper limit element can also be expected to change the shape of the forging during deformation. The finite element method can not only give the external load and the change of the shape of the forging, but also can give the internal stress and strain distribution, the disadvantage is that the computer with more machine time, especially the elastic-plastic finite element solution, the need for larger computer capacity, Longer machine time. There have been recent trends using joint methods to analyze problems, for example. With the upper limit method for rough calculation, in the key parts with finite element calculation.